Historical Overview - Uzbekistan - Central Asia

1) THE STONE AGE - ZOROASTRIANS AND PERSIANSUzbekistan has been where the main caravan roads the process of inhabiting the territory of Uzbekistan dates back to the Stone Age the most ancient information on the nationalities of Central Asia is documented in the Avesta-the code of holy hymns of the Zoroastrians lands were inhabited by Soghdians, Bactrians and other nationalities. During the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries B.C., a greater part of the Central Asian lands was under the power of the Persian dynasty of Akhemenids. The above mentioned nationalities are described in Persian original sources. Greek writers mentioned the existence of Marakanda city (today's Samarkand) and Kiropol in Ferghana.
2) ALEXANDER THE GREAT - In the third and fourth centuries B.C., Central Asia was conquered by the Macedonians. Conquest by Alexander the Great had a great effect on the economic and cultural development of the peoples of the East, West and Central Asia. In the middle of the third century B.C., the conquered regions became independent and local dynasties came to power. Bactria, which included the southern parts of Uzbekistan and Tadjikistan, became the hub of the Greek- Bactrian empire and later came under control of the Kushan empire. After the conquest of Central Asia by Alexander the Great, studies of the subsequent period depict development and the heyday of architecture, painting, handcrafts, and music.
3) THE ARAB INVASION - During the seventh and eighth centuries, Central Asia was conquered by the Arab Khalifat. The Arabs took over these countries under the mission of spreading the new religion of Islam. As a result, their conquest entirely changed the region's way of life. Building construction, art and science declined under the pressures of war and continued only in the middle of the nineth century. This was connected with the creation of independent empires ruled by the dynasties of the local aristocracy: the Tahirids and Samanids. In the l0th century, the Arabs were forced to withdraw their troops and the Samanids rose to power.


4) GENGHIZ KHAN AND TAMERLANE In 1220-1221 Central Asia could not withstand the invasion of Genghiz-Khan's army. Many cities, such as Bukhara, Khorezm, and Samarkand were destroyed. Thousands of people perished (in Samarkand, only 50,000 out of a population of one million survived). In the middle of the 14th century with the help of the famous warlord Tamerlane the local people were freed from the Mongols. Tamerlane began his succsessful marches to Iraq, India, Turkey, and noth Africa that led to establishing one of the most powerful medival empires, with Samarkand as the capital. Restoration and development of the cities (Samarkand and Shakhrisabz, Tamerlane's native town in particular), revived commerce, handyerafts, sceince and the arts.
5) UZBEK NOMADIC TRIBES  In the 14th century Uzbek nomadic tribes invaded from the north, conquering the small feudal states of Timurids and formed thier own state (later to be called Uzbekistan). The term " Uzbek" means "master" or "lord" of oneself. The economics of Central Asia in the past owed to stable relations with China, India and Europe. In the 2nd century B.C. caravan trade routes connected South-East Europe, Iraq, Caucasus, and Central Asia with Mongolia and China, and is now known as the great Silk Road. The Silk Road passed through the centers of Central Asia - Samarkand, Bukhara, Marghilan, Shakhrisabz, and Andijan.
6) RUSSIAN EMPIRE - In the second half of the 19th century the Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanates were joined to the Russian Empire. During this period agriculture was highly developed in Uzbekistan for one specific reason: it was more economical to grow cotton in Central Asia instead of importing it from the US. Cotton became the most important agricultural item. The construction of railroads made its impact on the development of trade and cultural relations between Asia and Europe. That was when the country began to overcome its earlier period of stagnation.

7) THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION in 1917 changed the political situation in Turkestan and in 1922 Uzbekistan became one of the republics of the USSR. Uzbekistan announced its independence from Russia, and September l, 1991 was proclaimed as its Independence Day.

8) UZBEKISTAN INDEPENDENCE Upon gaining its statehood, Uzbekistan began to work out its own way of becoming a renewed, developing sovereign democratic republic. The country is a multinational state: more than 129 nationalities and national minorities live there.

SAMARKAND

TASHKENT - Uzbekistan - Central Asia


 Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, has a population of more than 2.3 million people and is a city with two thousand years of history. It lies on the northern part of the Great Silk Route.

During the Middle Ages, Tashkent had become the center of an agriculture oasis, a town of handicrafts and arts, and a mighty fortress on the northern border against nomadic tribes.

After the terrible earthquake of 1966, the town was practically ruined. Tashkent again rose from its ashes and became one of the most beautiful towns in Central Asia and one of the largest cultural, scientific and industrial centers. Tashkent is a greenest town of CentralAsia with lots of parks, fountains and multicoloured bazaars. The lines of the Tashkent metro - the only metro in Central Asia - stretch 47 kilometers, and the design of the stations is considered to be among the most beautiful in the world.


bazaar ladies, Tashkent


Navruz, Holiday


Quite a number of international meetings, symposiums, congresses, and film festivals are held in Tashkent on a regular basis. Tashkent is the sister city to 10 cities of the world, such as Seattle, Scople, Karachi, and Pattiaia. Tashkent is the international air gate of Uzbekistan and Central Asia and is connected with direct flights to more than 15 countries of the world. The flagship air carrier is Uzbekistan Airways.

 

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